Leveraging Video for Learning

projector-361784_1280In today’s digital age, where technology is advancing exponentially, new opportunities for communicating across time and space are changing like never before. The use of video as a medium for communicating and connecting is exploding. In the midst of this rapid growth, video can be a great asset for learning and teaching. Let’s examine some of the benefits to leveraging video for learning which includes the ability to re-play and review content, establish instructor presence, and visually demonstrate how to do something.

First, video affords learners the opportunity to re-play and review content, as needed. For example, videos of recorded lectures, instructors’ introductions, or an employee assignment from a corporate trainer can all be paused, played and re-played for present and future generations to come. Video permanently records the learning. Many interactive videos also include built-in automatic pauses with intermittent quizzes as a way of administering knowledge checks and corrective feedback to accompany learning. Including repetition over spaced intervals of learning is also important, and can be administered through video. As educational neuroscientist Janet Zadina attests, repetition results in the repeated firing of brain networks and is a critical component for most learning.

Second, video helps to establish a sense of instructor presence. One of video’s greatest assets is its ability to convey affect, personality, and human presence virtually. In online learning, the absence of a “guide on the side” can impact progress and deeper levels of knowledge construction and application. However, a facilitator whose presence guides the learning, challenges learners, and encourages attendees can facilitate deeper thinking and learning. Anytime an online course or workshop is offered to employees, it’s important to establish this sense of instructor presence. There are other ways to provide presence without video; i.e., threaded discussion boards, course announcements, audio or written feedback on learning assignments, etc. However, both recorded and live video can be ways to establish presence. Recorded video can be used for instructor introductions, to record an instructor’s response to previously submitted learner questions, to facilitate online pre-work before attending training, or to provide opportunities to hear experts or best practices online.

Live video, then, also has its place. Occasional use of live video in a synchronous web conferencing platform by both instructor and attendees, for example, can be used to convey personalities, leverage connection among learners, and provide visual connection cues in a virtual space. Feeling instructor support in training or learning workshops, whether you are in professional development, higher education, or corporate training helps to aid the learning process.

Third, video provides performance support by demonstrating how to complete or do something at the moment of need. When my husband wanted to complete home fix-up tasks like caulking the sink, bathtub faucet and counters, he found helpful videos on YouTube to learn the tips and tricks from experts who caulk professionally. When children need to learn how to create a hairstyle from Star Wars’ characters for Halloween costumes, they search for a “how to” video. Video provides both the visual and audio cues to understand and apply the “how” “where” and “what” for an immediate task at hand. Traditional print instructions are helpful to some, of course, but cognitive resources can be taxed more with print. But the powerful blend of hearing, seeing, and doing result in greater probability of transfer to long-term memory for cognitive storage and retrieval.

Overall, there are multiple benefits to leveraging video for learning. Just a few of those include the ability to re-play videos and reinforce spaced repetition of content, to foster instructor presence across time and space, and to leverage both visual and audio cues to efficiently teach how to do something at the time of need.

How have you used video to learn? What say you?

 

 

Summer Conference Take-aways

Have you attended a conference recently that transformed the way you worked after returning to your office? Conferences are a great way to network with others, hear salient ideas from thought leaders, and be inspired by colleagues from any number of disciplines.

This year I was fortunate to attend six conferences, one of which, was the UW-Madison Distance Teaching and Learning Conference held this summer in Madison, Wisconsin. Although there were many great insights and lessons learned at this conference, I especially enjoyed the sessions on video and interactive video content and their relevance in today’s training and educational world.

For example, James Moore from DePaul University shared take-aways from video best practices and educational videos. He explored how you can create engaging video for instruction using ScreenFlow, Screencast, or Camtasia. He encouraged content creators to use content from open sources. Referencing Richard Mayer’s multimedia principles, he underscored the importance of applying several of these principles to video as well. To help with poor audio, he suggested using a pop filter as a best practice to minimize audio distractions. In terms of recording video on mobile devices, he reminded those who videotape themselves to turn their phones sideways before recording video. Watching videos in portrait mode requires the brain to scan vertically, and it’s not conducive to the way we normally view the world.

Additionally, because many people are uncomfortable when presenting in front of a camera or often look quite scared, Moore suggests creating bullets on the Teleprompter for on-camera talent so they are not tempted to read verbatim. This helps them to not be as tied down to the teleprompter and hopefully, relax more. Additionally, Moore emphasized that many more viewers are watching video only on their phones, especially millennials, so realize your videos will most likely be viewed on small screens.

Matt Pierce from TechSmith was another presenter at the conference who also discussed the use of video for learning. According to a 2016 study conducted by TechSmith, participants watching instructional and informative videos often stopped watching the videos after around one minute, and their main reasons for stopping the video were because they were bored or it wasn’t providing them what they were looking for generally. This raises the bigger question of the need to continually explore how to engage viewers through video.

For those who wish to integrate content with video, there are some applications that allow you to create video content and then pause and allow students to respond in a comment or a question box. Learners may select an answer and then receive immediate, corrective feedback. As we know from multiple research studies that show the results of the testing effect, frequent quizzes that test recall often and give corrective feedback are essential for learning. John Orlando from Northcentral University recommends a variety of interactive content applications which include:  EDpuzzle; dot storming; Videoant; Thinglink; and Touchcast.

In terms of actual video production, Pierce suggests that if you do make a mistake while recording video to simply speak the line again. This is a more efficient way to record, rather than starting completely over as a new “take.” In post-production, the error can be edited out or smoothed over with a transition or cut-away clip. There are also ways to underscore your video productions and cue the viewers as to the most important content and parts of your video. For example, you can use a verbal signpost such as “If you hear nothing else, remember this . . . ” Phrases such as these alert the listener to pay extra special attention.

The best take-away from conferences, of course, is the ability to return to the workplace and apply something new. And hopefully, you and your organization will reap the benefits of transformation somewhere along the way . . .

What is one of your key take-aways from professional development or conferences you’ve attended this year?

Online Video: The “Slight Shift” Difference

I had an editor once request I change a word in my title because, as he explained it, a singular word can either “kill or boost readership” depending on the word, of course.

Now that’s powerful.

Most of us would be in a hurry to shrug off any difference a slight adjustment might make on a bigger outcome. Yet analytics tell us a different story. Research studies prove otherwise as well.

Apparently, one word can make a difference.

Magazine editors know this truth well. The image selected to grace the cover of a magazine can determine whether or not a magazine sells well. Book editors know that a book’s title can make the difference in whether or not the book has the potential to be a bestseller.

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These minor adjustments are all slight shifts and may seem minute, but ultimately . . . they can make a big difference.

Let’s apply this notion to online video. Some of the widespread beliefs about video are: “online video doesn’t have to be high quality”; “just get it done and post it on YouTube”; “don’t sweat the small stuff”; “viewers of online video are used to low quality”; “just turn on the video camera and start talking”; etc.

Yet there’s definitely something missing in this thinking.

As it turns out, little things can make an impact. For example, by directing your eye contact right at the camera lens, you can connect with viewers in a more powerful and compelling way. By smiling when it’s appropriate in your content, you establish rapport with your viewer, increase likability, and may be watched longer because you’re perceived as inviting and friendly. By taking the time to frame your shot and remove potential distracting background items from view, you help to direct focus on the speaker and his/her message.

Have you noticed a pattern?

All of these adjustments are slight shifts. Slight shifts in the way an online presenter on video comes across, slight shifts in on-camera presence, slight shifts that don’t take that long to make . . . yet, which ultimately . . . make a big difference.

 

What are the collective “slight shifts” you can make in your video presentations?

Why You Need to Invite Viewers (of video) To Participate

Last week, we explored the power of fostering a participative community in today’s multimedia-rich age. Today’s consumers, customers, and users now expect to participate in the process of learning, viewing, voting, competing, entertaining, etc.

Period.

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Our technological age has ushered in this desire for end-users to connect and participate with those “inside” the media they consume. Time and space are no longer barriers in our virtual world. Also gone are the days of passive observers. Because the technological capability is available, we expect to be given the opportunity to participate.

So how does this apply to creating online video presentations?

When you present on video, whether you are teaching, selling, informing, or entertaining, you are addressing a virtual audience that wants to be part of the experience. Let’s explore some of the ways you might involve viewers.

  1. Ask Questions in Your Video
    Asking rhetorical questions in your video presentation and pausing briefly to allow viewers to think about their response is one way to involve viewers. Rhetorical questions can be useful on the front-end, as closing punctuation, or even throughout your video.
  2. Invite Posts and Comments
    Requesting viewers communicate what they want to hear, comment on what you’ve discussed, ask questions, and add their own suggestions to your ideas are all ways to solicit comments and engage viewers.
  3. Request Photos from Viewers
    You can also request viewers send images of how they’ve applied what you’ve shared. For example, if you’ve created a video to show customers how to make a gluten-free cake, ask them to send a photo of the cake they made using your instructions or encourage them to post the image on social media.
  4. Encourage Viewers to Create a Video
    In response to what you’ve shared on your video, encourage viewers to create their own videos to demonstrate ideas, showcase what they’ve learned, or ask direct questions.
  5. Notice your Language – Keep it Personal and Informal
    When you are presenting on video, you can include more personal pronouns in your delivery so we are once again reminded that you are really talking to us. Additionally, you can include phrases such as “now you might be thinking, . . .” In this way, you are reaching out to viewers and including what they might be thinking in your video.

Just because we can’t physically see our audience in video, doesn’t mean we can’t involve them, invite them to participate, and of course, connect with them. A virtual audience member for online videos is still a real viewer.  And yes, they want to be part of your video experience. So make sure . . . they receive an invitation.

What are your ideas for including viewers in online video presentations?

Video Lessons from a Flight Attendant

On a recent flight, I observed the actions of one flight attendant that made this particular Delta employee “stand out from the rest.”

Let’s call him Sam.

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Rather than bore frequent travelers with the usual, repetitive safety instructions in a monotone fashion, Sam did something unique.

In fact, it was the opposite of what you might have seen in the 1986 hit movie “Ferris Bueller’s Day Off,” where Ferris’ Economics teacher famously droned on with “Anyone, Anyone?” while students fell asleep.

True, Sam was required to perform his job duties and explain and model flight safety instructions. But rather, than sitting back and allowing his audience/customers to be passive recipients of the information, he included us in the process.

After explaining that there were four exits in the aircraft while simultaneously pointing to them, he suddenly stopped and asked with a twinkle in his eye, “So how many exits are there?” To my surprise, the normally drowsy half-listening crowd shouted back “four”!

Sam then spoke into the microphone and said, “I have extra snacks for the first person who can show me where their Safety Card is.” Once again, to my surprise, a gentleman in row one immediately whipped out his safety card from the seat in front of him, only to be rewarded with not one, but three extra Biscoff cookies.

Free food always motivates. Always.

Sam went on to say that the lucky winner in row one would now demonstrate how best to apply an oxygen mask to which the lucky winner and the rest of us laughed – appreciating his sense of humor.

As you can imagine, by now, Sam had all of our attention.

Do you see what Sam was doing?

Sam had created a space where the audience could participate. A participatory audience not only enjoys the experience more, but also directs riveted attention to what is being said. As cognitive psychology and the learning sciences prove, attention is an essential ingredient for learning and retention.

So what are lessons from Sam we can apply to online videos and video learning?

The bottom line is that in the age of digital multimedia, audiences want to participate.

Think about the popular reality shows where viewers are able to vote off participants or select winners from competitions. Think about your engagement in social media and your ability to post reactions or disagree with a post. Think about your ability to submit comments on YouTube and request topics you would like to see addressed in the near future.

As viewers, we want to be involved in process. Gone are the days of passive recipients.

So as we move forward to pioneer effective online videos, especially in the learning space, let’s remember what Sam taught us. We need to create a space where viewers can participate, and not just because . . . we’ll give them extra cookies.

Tune in next week, as we explore ways for viewers to participate in online videos you create.

What are your ideas for viewer participation?

The Rise of Online Video Tutorials

Need to make a quilt, but need some guidance? Youtube can help. Interested in learning the secrets to performing on stage from someone who has been there? Masterclass.com is your answer. Wish you could learn how to better prepare for acting auditions? Check out curious.com. Want to learn how to set up a video shoot? Visit lynda.com.

Video tutorials are on the rise with competitors targeting both corporate and academic sectors. Essentially, these are courses you watch. Leveraging the popularity and convenience of learning anytime and anywhere, why wouldn’t you consider purchasing a subscription for you or your staff to view video tutorials on your topics of choice? The beauty of video tutorials is that they are available when and where you need them, and yes, right at your fingertips.

There are certainly benefits to learning via video. Some of the obvious ones include the ability to easily replay them, their on-demand access, the opportunity to pause when needed, and the luxury to complete them at one’s own pace. The challenge may be ensuring learners’ real-world application of concepts and principles as close to the time of learning as possible. Additionally, the ability to talk and write about what one has learned is essential for transferring new mental models from working memory to long-term memory. However, these activities are not always included with online video tutorials.

Each provider of video tutorials offers their own niche for potential buyers of lifelong learning. For example, curious.com, offers brief previews for free so you can get a taste of their offerings as diverse as media negotiation to body language for public speaking. Lynda.com offers video tutorials on a variety of subjects as well, also providing handouts and outlines and the opportunity to take notes online. Masterclass.com affords the opportunity to interface and learn from celebrities the likes of Serena Williams or James Patterson to teach you tennis or how to be a novelist respectively. For educators and students, atomiclearning.com offers videos for K12 and Higher Ed faculty, staff, and students, including how to use popular software for teaching and learning.

In today’s digital age, learning from video tutorials is clearly exploding. Video’s accessibility, the ability to chunk visual content, and self-directed replay and review all combine together to make them, well, . . . absolutely irresistible. Let’s do our part to ensure that they are the best video instruction possible so we can set the standard for quality instruction via video.

What say you?